Languages category

A_corpus-based_study_of_modal_verbs_in_academic writing of English native speakers.PDF

This study is a corpus-based analysis of modal verbs in the English academic writing of Saudi Arabian advanced learners whose mother tongue is Arabic. The aim of this study is to develop a better understanding of the uses of modal verbs in academic writing by non-native speakers of English as compared with native speakers. The writing analyzed is a corpus created from Master of Arts (MA) dissertations. The study compares the use of modal verbs by these writers with that of the writing of native speakers of British English using the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus. The results show that the category of modal verbs is generally underused by Saudi writers when compared with native speaker writers. An exception occurs with the modal should which was the only modal verb found to be considerably overused by Saudi writers. The modal verbs would, could and may are significantly underused. The absence of an organized modal verbs system in the Arabic language may influence Arabic speakers' use of modal verbs. The overall analysis has demonstrated that Saudi writers use a restricted repertoire of modal verbs. The analysis also points to some pedagogical implications that needs to be taken into consideration by English for Academic Purposes (EAP) material writers, particularly for Saudi learners. Cite as: Akeel, E.S. (2020). A corpus-based study of modal verbs in academic writing of English native speakers and Saudis. University of Reading, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics..

published on 18-02-2020 - 27 просмотр
Why_Agree_Why_Move_Unifying_Agreement.pdf

One of the great mysteries of human language is the existence of movement operations. Why does movement occur? At every stage in the development of generative grammar, an attempt has been made to answer this question. It would not be an overstatement to say that the answer at any given point characterizes in an essential way the general nature of the theory at that particular point. In other words, every step in the evolution of generative grammar has been, in no small measure, an attempt to construct an answer to this question that is better than the one before. In Government-Binding Theory (GB), movement operations—in fact, all operations—are entirely optional, so Moveacan move anything anywhere, anytime. Independent universal principles such as the Empty Category Principle and Subjacency extract from this overgenerated set of strings the subset that constitutes the grammatical strings of a particular language. In this way, the independent principles not only allow the theory to reach descriptive adequacy—in the ideal, of course—they also allow it to reach explanatory adequacy in that they ‘‘give a general theory of linguistic structure of which each [grammar of a particular language] is an exemplification’’ (Chomsky 1955/1975:77).

published on 13-02-2020 - 34 просмотр
The Prominence of Tense, Aspect and Mood.pdf

The present study may be considered as using a functional-typological approach, as it attempts to establish generalizations regarding a particular grammatical feature (verbal category) on the basis of a functional perspective. It is also basically a “differentiating” approach, in the sense that it tries to find out ways in which languages differ from one another in their use of a given grammatical feature. Typological studies have been generally based upon the universalistic approach. That is, they have been attempting to find generalizations that are applicable to all languages.

published on 13-02-2020 - 50 просмотр
REPORTED SPEECH

It is a book which contains a lesson of Reported speech and about 33 sentences as an application to learn this lesson

published on 09-02-2020 - 62 просмотр
تعلم اللغه الانجليزيه من البدايه الى الاحتراف 2020

تعلم قواعد اللغه الانجليزيه من الصفر الى الاحتراف مع الى لترجمة باللغة العربية الفصحى ،للمعظم كلمات المتداولة في حياة العملية و المهنية.

published on 08-02-2020 - 117 просмотр
The Kama Sutra

PREFACE. In the literature of all countries there will be found a certain number of works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealt with differently, and from various points of view. In the present publication it is proposed to give a complete translation of what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and which is called the 'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,' or Aphorisms on Love, by Vatsyayana. While the introduction will bear with the evidence concerning the date of the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the chapters following the introduction will give a translation of the work itself. It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works of the same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years after Vatsya had passed away, but who still considered him as a great authority, and always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo erotic literature. Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same subject are procurable in India:— 1. The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love. 2. The Panchasakya, or the five arrows. 3. The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love. 4. The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love. 5. The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love. 6. The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love. The author of the 'Secrets of Love' (No. 1) was a poet named Kukkoka. He composed his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. When writing his own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself "Siddha patiya pandita," i.e., an ingenious man among learned men. The work was translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's name was written as Koka. And as the same name crept into all the translations into other languages in India, the book became generally known, and the subject was

published on 29-01-2020 - 126 просмотр
The 5 love languages

The 5 Love Languages states that people express and feel loved in 5 different ways. We should make effort to understand how our partner feel love and act accordingly...

published on 25-01-2020 - 92 просмотр
The Romagnolo dialect. A short study on its history, grammar and how it still survives

5p.In Italy, dialects have always played an important role. Since the Middle Ages, these languages, which were born from spoken Latin and then evolved during centuries, were used to communicate and they were part of daily life. At least until the unification of Italy, dialects were spoken by the majority of people, since Italian was used only in written forms and spoken by a limited group of rich and intellectual people. Then, after the World War II, Italian gradually became the real national language dimming the usage of dialects among people, who began to consider dialects as languages spoken only by the poor and the ignorant. However, dialects are still important to truly understand the deep-rooted culture and traditions of Italian regions and nowadays it is not acceptable to consider them as inferior languages. Considering the fact that I am a native speaker of Italian and my experience with dialect, the subject of this essay will be the dialect of my region, Emilia Romagna. First of all, the history of the Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect will be presented. Consequently, linguistic features concerning grammar, morphology, phonology and the current situation of this dialect will be examined together with some mention of dialectal poetry and literature. Since in the region there are different varieties of a unique dialect, in this essay, in particular, the Romagnolo dialect will be taken into consideration. In the first part, however, there will be a presentation of the whole dialectal area

published on 25-01-2020 - 99 просмотр
analyzing english

cour d'anglais de haut niveau et surtout pour vous permettre de mieux appréhender les règles grammaticales les plus importantes en anglais et de vous permettre à analyser les mots dans chaque texte

published on 21-01-2020 - 93 просмотр
Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom

Jules is a young man barely a century old. He's lived long enough to see the cure for death and the end of scarcity, to learn ten languages and compose three symphonies...and to realize his boyhood dream of taking up residence in Disney World. Disney World! The greatest artistic achievement of the long-ago twentieth century. Now in the keeping of a network of "ad-hocs" who keep the classic attractions running as they always have, enhanced with only the smallest high-tech touches. Now, though, the "ad hocs" are under attack. A new group has taken over the Hall of the Presidents, and is replacing its venerable audioanimatronics with new, immersive direct-to-brain interfaces that give guests the illusion of being Washington, Lincoln, and all the others. For Jules, this is an attack on the artistic purity of Disney World itself ...

published on 15-01-2020 - 134 просмотр
Descriptive_Grammar_vs_Prescriptive_Grammar

What is Grammar? · Language user’s subconscious internal system · Linguists’ attempt to codify or describe that system · Sounds of language · Phonology · Structure and form of words · Morphology · Arrangement of words into larger units · Syntax · Meanings of language · Semantics · Functions of language & its use in context · Pragmatics

published on 14-01-2020 - 1391 просмотр
Grammar for Teachers, Grammar for Students

What is Grammar? · Language user’s subconscious internal system · Linguists’ attempt to codify or describe that system · Sounds of language · Phonology · Structure and form of words · Morphology · Arrangement of words into larger units · Syntax · Meanings of language · Semantics · Functions of language & its use in context · Pragmatics

published on 14-01-2020 - 1380 просмотр
L’essentiel des pièges et difficultés de la langue française pour les Nuls

L’essentiel des pièges et difficultés de la langue française pour les Nuls « Pour les Nuls » est une marque déposée de Wiley Publishing, Inc. « For Dummies » est une marque déposée de Wiley Publishing, Inc.

published on 09-01-2020 - 159 просмотр
Les 800 expressions pour tout dire en anglais

Un Petit Livre à mettre dans votre poche pour faire face à toutes les situations de la vie de tous les jours. Pour « mettre à jour » l’anglais que vous avez appris au cours de votre scolarité; pour pouvoir communiquer dans un des nombreux pays de langue anglaise; pour pouvoir parler à des étrangers en visite chez vous ou dans votre travail… Vous recherchez un ouvrage facile à emporter partout? Ce Petit Livre est fait pour vous.

published on 09-01-2020 - 179 просмотр
Security Testing Web Applications through Automated Software Tests

Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................ 2 1. ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... 4 2. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 4 2.1 Introducing Automated Software Testing................................................................. 5 2.2 Use cases and Abuse cases....................................................................................... 6 3. TYPES OF AUTOMATED SOFTWARE TESTS .............................................................. 6 3.1 Unit Tests ..................................................................................................................... 7 3.2 Integration Tests.......................................................................................................... 7 3.3 Acceptance Tests ........................................................................................................ 7 4. INTRODUCING JUNIT...................................................................................................... 7 4.1 Advantages of using Unit Tests............................................................................... 11 4.2 Unit testing frameworks for popular languages..................................................... 11 5. WEB APPLICATION SECURITY STANDARDS AND THE COVERAGE OFFERED BY UNIT TESTS ..................................................................................................................................... 12 5.1 Example Web Application Security Standard......................................................... 12 6. TESTING SECURITY IN UNIT TESTS ........................................................................... 13 6.1 Testing in Isolation.................................................................................................... 13 6.2 Vulnerability Testing Coverage................................................................................ 13 6.3 Example: Testing Input Validation........................................................................... 14 6.4 Discussion.................................................................................................................. 15 7. TESTING SECURITY IN INTEGRATION TESTS........................................................... 15 7.1 Testing Strategies...................................................................................................... 15 7.2 Apache Cactus........................................................................................................... 16 7.3 Example: Testing Container Managed Access Control......................................... 16 7.4 Discussion.................................................................................................................. 18 8. SECURITY TESTING IN ACCEPTANCE TESTS .......................................................... 18 8.1 Testing tools .............................................................................................................. 19 8.2 Example: Testing HTML injection with jWebUnit ................................................... 19 8.3 WATIR......................................................................................................................... 20 8.4 Example: Testing for SQL injection in a login form.............................................. 20

published on 09-01-2020 - 120 просмотр
Tenses

Book which gives you a sight about tenses in English It summarize all tenses. All the twelve tenses are here :4 pasts , 4 presents , 4 futures

published on 08-01-2020 - 192 просмотр
The Kama Sutra

In the literature of all countries there will be found a certain number of works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealt with differently, and from various points of view. In the present publication it is proposed to give a complete translation of what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and which is called the 'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,' or Aphorisms on Love, by Vatsyayana. While the introduction will bear with the evidence concerning the date of the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the chapters following the introduction will give a translation of the work itself. It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works of the same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years after Vatsya had passed away, but who still considered him as a great authority, and always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo erotic literature. Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same subject are procurable in India:— 1. The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love. 2. The Panchasakya, or the five arrows. 3. The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love. 4. The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love. 5. The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love. 6. The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love. The author of the 'Secrets of Love' (No. 1) was a poet named Kukkoka. He composed his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. When writing his own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself "Siddha patiya pandita," i.e., an ingenious man among learned men. The work was translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's name was written as Koka. And as the same name crept into all the translations into other languages in India, the book became generally known, and the subject was

published on 07-01-2020 - 243 просмотр
Tutorial :: Getting Started in MICROMINE 2013

MICROMINE is a leading provider of innovative software solutions that span the breadth of the mining cycle from geological exploration and data management, to resource estimation, mine design, planning and production control. Founded 30 years ago, we have steadily grown over the years to become one of the world’s leading mining software companies with our solutions used at more than 2,000 sites in over 90 countries. Customers use MICROMINE software to maximise their asset value, increase productivity and for decisions on which they know they can rely. Our software is renowned for its ease of use yet powerful capabilities. All products are available in numerous languages and supported by local experts. Our huge on-going commitment to research and development ensures Micromine develops software products that continue to set new standards of innovation and excellence for the mining and resources industries.

published on 06-01-2020 - 693 просмотр
What's Wrong With The Way I Speak Forty Problems in Grammar For You To Solve (With corrections)

This book illustrates the reasons why people should speak using good grammar. It also challenges readers to find the problems in 40 sentences that contain grammatical errors. At the back of the book readers are show how the errors can be corrected.

published on 06-01-2020 - 3961 просмотр
Useful Resources And Tools You Need To Effectively Study English

Today, we have lots of resources, tools, apps, software and other information on the internet at our disposal. So, it is quite confusing on which kind of resources, tools, apps, etc. to go for. In this book, I'll list down Useful Resources And Tools You Need To Effectively Study English.

published on 06-01-2020 - 3747 просмотр
Cillins webster's easy learning how to use english

Digital edition : collins webster's easy learning haw to use english,the easiest way accurate end effective english .pioneers di tionary publishing

published on 02-01-2020 - 137 просмотр
Learn Python in One Day and Learn It Well: Python for Beginners with Hands-on Project. The only book

Master Python Programming with a unique Hands-On Project Have you always wanted to learn computer programming but are afraid it'll be too difficult for you? Or perhaps you know other programming languages but are interested in learning the Python language fast? This book is for you. You no longer have to waste your time and money learning Python from lengthy books, expensive online courses or complicated Python tutorials. What this book offers... Python for Beginners Complex concepts are broken down into simple steps to ensure that you can easily master the Python language even if you have never coded before. Carefully Chosen Python Examples Examples are carefully chosen to illustrate all concepts. In addition, the output for all examples are provided immediately so you do not have to wait till you have access to your computer to test the examples. Learn The Python Programming Language Fast Concepts are presented in a "to-the-point" style to cater to the busy individual. With this book, you can learn Python in just one day and start coding immediately. How is this book different... The best way to learn Python is by doing. This book includes a complete project at the end of the book that requires the application of all the concepts taught previously. Working through the project will not only give you an immense sense of achievement, it"ll also help you retain the knowledge and master the language. Are you ready to dip your toes into the exciting world of Python coding? This book is for you. Click the "Add to Cart" button to buy it now. What you'll learn: What is Python? What software you need to code and run Python programs? What are variables? What mathematical operators are there in Python? What are the common data types in Python? What are Lists and Tuples? How to format strings How to accept user inputs and display outputs How to make decisions with If statements How to control the flow of program with loops How to handle errors and exceptions What are functions and modules? How to define your own functions and modules How to work with external files .. and more... Finally, you'll be guided through a hands-on project that requires the application of all the topics covered.

published on 23-12-2019 - 163 просмотр
10 règles de français pour faire 99% de fautes en moins

Des règles faciles a apprendre pour un meilleur français et moins de faute .............................................

published on 12-12-2019 - 182 просмотр
Apprendre l'alphabet française 2019

Apprentissage de la alphabet française 2019 pour les enfants et les débutants en langues étrangères françaises.

published on 04-12-2019 - 226 просмотр
Cours de Français :: Accord du verbe

L’accord du verbe relève de la syntaxe verbale, qui vise donc à considérer le verbe dans sa relation avec les éléments qui l’entourent dans la phrase, contrairement donc à la morphologie verbale qui s’intéresse à la forme du verbe, pris isolément.

published on 30-11-2019 - 528 просмотр
the power of now

The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment is a book by Eckhart Tolle. The book is intended to be a guide for day-to-day living and stresses the importance of living in the present moment and transcending thoughts of the past or future. Published in the late 1990s, the book was recommended by Oprah Winfrey and has been translated into 33 languages.[3] As of 2009, it was estimated that three-million copies had been sold in North America.

published on 26-11-2019 - 257 просмотр
Learn English Through Telugu

The book primarily attempts to introduce those, whose mother tongue is not Telugu, to learning of Telugu by the most natural and the simplest method. It adopts the scientific approach, introducing alphabet, words, sentences in that order and application of these in the most common situations of daily life. Situational sentences and conversational sentences selected for the book reflect the maximum possible commonness of Indian languages and Indian culture. The purpose is that the learner during the process of learning should be sufficiently equipped to converse and transact with a very vast section of Hindi speaking people throughout India and abroad. The book can also be helpful to foreigners who are on a visit to India as tourists, scholars, diplomats and businessmen as it would enable them to move about in different parts of the country transcending the language barriers.

published on 20-11-2019 - 318 просмотр
The Gifts of Imperfection: Embrace Who You Are

When our embarrassments and fears lie, we often listen to them anyway. They thwart our gratitude, acceptance, and compassion—our goodness. They insist, “I am not worthy.” But we are worthy—of self-discovery, personal growth, and boundless love. With Brené Brown’s game-changing New York Times bestseller The Gifts of Imperfection—which has sold more than 2 million copies in more than 30 different languages, and Forbes recently named one of the "Five Books That Will Actually Change Your Outlook On Life"—we find courage to overcome paralyzing fear and self-consciousness, strengthening our connection to the world. A motivational and inspiring guide to wholehearted living, rather than just the average self-help book, with this groundbreaking work Brené Brown, Ph.D., bolsters the self-esteem and personal development process through her characteristic heartfelt, honest storytelling. With original research and plenty of encouragement, she explores the psychology of releasing our definitions of an “imperfect” life and embracing living authentically. Brown’s “ten guideposts” are benchmarks for authenticity that can help anyone establish a practice for a life of honest beauty—a perfectly imperfect life. Now more than ever, we all need to cultivate feelings of self-worth, as well as acceptance and love for ourselves. In a world where insults, criticisms, and fears are spread too generously alongside messages of unrealistic beauty, attainment, and expectation, we look for ways to “dig deep” and find truth and gratitude in our lives. A new way forward means we can’t hold on too tightly to our own self-defeating thoughts or the displaced pain in our world. Instead, we can embrace the imperfection.

published on 19-11-2019 - 283 просмотр